Power System Transformation for Dummies
Power system transformation
understanding the challenges
Some characteristics of vRES technologies
vRES are fluctuating.
vRES forecasts are not perfect.
Large vRES plants may be located remotely.
vRES are dispersed.
vRES generate using power electronics.
vRES may run without operator.
vRES generate at zero marginal cost.
Important note: The characteristics listed here are neither exclusive for vRES nor unconditional.
  • The characteristics are not strictly related to vRES, i.e. some of the them also apply to other generation technologies.
    Examples: Large hydro power stations regularly are at remote locations. Their major planning criteria are orography and hydro resources. This holds similarly for power plants burning lignite: they are regularly located close to the mines.
  • Not the complete set of characteristics applies to all vRES plants. Some of them are even contradicting.
    Examples: Residential PV rooftop systems are electrically not remote and an offshore wind farm with 1000 MW rated capacity being connected to the extra high voltage transmission network cannot be qualified as dispersed.
The mixture of characteristics in a power system, however, changes with vRES development. This affects system planning and operation. And, hence, the variety of aspects in their interaction has to be understood.